Sorry Barry, no data to provide. The OP only asked if it is possible, but he/she did not provide the circumstances or situation or need to know. Generally in a plant environment, when a ball pops out of the cage/retainer there is plenty of evidence of a bearing fault/failure detectable by vibrations, sound, or ultrasound.
Several years ago I developed a precision ball bearing test method for measuring Contact Angle as a quality control of manufactured bearing dimensions. The system could detect a missing ball, but I don't know if the OEM actually found one or tested the capability to do so.